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Blessington Demesne 1 (Round Barrow(s))

I was heading south for Church mountain and glanced down to my right as I entered Blessington. Seeing the temporary fencing I quickly diverted and decided to check it out. And oh dear, what a mess! Already a neglected and overgrown monument, with a kids' playground butted up to its west side, now the ignominy of a skate park to its east.

Sounding desperately like a killjoy to myself here, let it be said that the more playgrounds and skate parks for our kids, the better. But come on – allow the ancient burial site a bit of room to breathe. The beginnings of the ground work on the east side cut right into the edge of the external bank.

The whole project seems to have gone ahead with a lack of thought – what's going to happen to the barrow now, given that the council has already treated it with such disdain? I get the feeling that they'd prefer if it just went away. Shame.
ryaner Posted by ryaner
1st November 2014ce

Cappaboy Beg NW (Stone Circle)

2014 update: there's now a house at the very end of the track, beyond the farm, and it looks as if there may be plans to build in the field containing the circle (it has a well defined track and a small levelled area.) Posted by meg-y
1st November 2014ce

Cappaboy Beg SE (Stone Circle)

If you use the map coordinates given above, and as provided by Burl, you may end up confused. On iOS map 85, there are three red dots representing stones in the lower portion of square W 090 600. The most easterly is at W 097 604, the central location is at W 0955 6030, and the westerly at W 094 602. On TMA, there are three sites with reference W 097 604 in the same group: Ring Cairn, Circle, and Standing Stones, though the latitudes differ. Burl gives the OS map reference W 097 604 as the location of Cappaboy Beg SE (stone circle). I believe this may be incorrect.

Travelling northeast on the R584, 6km out of Kealkil, there's a school on the right at W0970 5985 (on a side road). Continue on the main road for about 700 metres and you'll see a pair of field gates on the left. We parked here as best we could without causing an obstruction. Take the gate on the right, and follow the track straight up the hill, which eventually leads onto open moorland. If you keep the fence on your right (following the rougher track uphill) you'll find the ring cairn after a few hundred metres. The circle is then a few hundred metres further on up the hill, out of sight, just over the ridge (the 200m contour on the OS map.)
Posted by meg-y
1st November 2014ce

Grime's Graves (Ancient Mine / Quarry)

Visited 29.10.14

Well, I finally managed to get here!

We parked up on the grass field (which doubles for a car park) and made our way to the information centre/museum/shop. Sophie was too young to be allowed down the mine (minimum age 5) although I know she wouldn't have any difficulty getting down. She had to satisfy herself with an ice cream and a DVD of Peppa Pig sat in the car with Karen as myself and Dafydd headed for the entrance to the mine.

I was surprised to find a sort of Potacabin above the entrance as when I have seen the site on TV they always enter via a shaft which requires a hand winched hatch to be opened. (I later discovered that that particular shaft is not open to the public and is on the far side of the field - unless you happen to be Neil Oliver of course!)

We donned our hard hats and climbed down the ladder. There were only two other people there so we didn't need to wait. If you do have to wait there were replica hand axes/arrow heads/scrapers you could examine in the 'Portacabin'. Once at the bottom of the ladder our eyes soon adjusted to the gloom and we took it in turns to duck down and peer through the railings and into the tunnels.

In the main shaft many of the prized blac flints could be easily seen against the backdrop of the white chalk. I was surprised to see ferns growing on the sides of the top of the shaft. I was glad I had my hard hat on as several times I bashed my head on the stones! We were able to spend as long as we wanted at the bottom of the shaft before returning to the surface.

We then headed across the pock-scarred field to explore the 'lumps and bumps'. This is often referred to as being a 'lunar landscape' but to me it just seemed exactly what it was - a post-industrial landscape. Being from South Wales I am used to seeing the scars of industry making their mark on the landscape. This seemed no different.

As we walked back to the car two army helicopters landed soldiers in the field opposite and they then practiced their landing/taking off. Most of the land surrounding Grimes Graves is owned by the MOD.

I am glad I visited Grimes Graves - it is amazing that these ancient places are still with us - and I would certainly recommend a visit if you happen to be in the area. As an added bonus it's another English Heritage site knocked off the list!
Posted by CARL
31st October 2014ce

Cloanlawers (Cup and Ring Marks / Rock Art)

New find from yesterday . Light was failing so pics not too clear . tiompan Posted by tiompan
30th October 2014ce

South Creake (Plateau Fort)

Visited 28.10.14

Direction:
South-West of South Creake along a minor road.


I wasn't expecting much from this site but I was pleasantly surprised. A decent car park, litter bin, benches/table and information boards. Access from the car park to the fort is via a wooden kissing gate.

Despite being the end of October it felt more like summer. Clear blue sky, warm sunshine and feeling comfortable in shorts and t-shirt.

Although most of the site has been ploughed away (one section survives to a height of about 1.5m) the information boards give a good idea of how it would have looked in its prime.

An RAF jet roared overhead, twisting and turning as the pilot practiced their manouvers. I am sure the inhabitants of the hillfort would have appreciated having one of those when facing the mighty Roman Army!

This is a great example of how a site can be both protected and made accessible for the public to visit Well done to Norfolk Archaeology Trust for their good work. Let's hope other parts of the country follow suite.
Posted by CARL
29th October 2014ce

Sea Henge (Timber Circle)

Visited 28.10.14

Directions:
Lynn Museum, Market Street, Kings Lynn
(entrance at the bus station)

Being a big Time Team fan I have wanted to see these timbers ever since the (in)famous 'special'. It's a long way from Cardiff to Kings Lynn but at last I got the chance. I had planned this holiday and booked the hotels months ago but last week my dad passed away at the 'ripe old age' of 93. I know this is a 'good innings' as they say but the sense of grief remains the same. The holiday was therefore nearly cancelled but as there was nothing I could do at home it seemed pointless moping about at home.

From October to March the museum is free to enter which is an added bonus. I was able to buy a leaflet on Seahenge for 50p but was surprised there wasn't something more 'substantial' available to buy. Although they did have several Francis Pryor books on display.

Myself and Dafydd eagerly went through the door marked Seahenge exhibition (unfortunately no audio phones available) and we made our way past the model of one of the Seahenge builders and the reconstructed outside of the timber circle. Although made of fiber glass it does look like real wood to be fair.

We the turned around the corner to see the real thing (well, half of the circle anyway) encased behind glass. The information boards are very good although I was expecting the timbers to be rather larger.

Enclosed in a separate glass case is the mighty upside down tree trunk, complete with hole in order to drag it across the land. The tree trunk is very big, much larger than I was expecting.

There are also several display cabinets showing prehistoric finds from the locality. There are also very good. The rest of the museum covers the Roman period right through to recent times.

The start attraction of the museum of course is Seahenge. It really is very special and well worth the effort involved in getting to see it. Lynn Museum isn't very big and I can see that they have done their best to display the timbers. However, it is a pity that the circle couldn't be displayed in its entirety with the tree trunk in the middle. Perhaps one day this may be possible? I assume the other timbers are safely stored away somewhere?

Do try to visit the museum if you happen to be in the area. It is well worth it.


***
It seems likely that the upturned tree trunk served as a place for a body to be exposed to the elements in order to be 'prepared' for burial. Last week my father passed away and yesterday I had a 'phone call from my sister to say that he is now at the funeral home being 'prepared' for his funeral next week. It may me think of the emotions the people who built Seahenge must have also been going through.

These notes are dedicated to my dad who I thank for taking me on holiday around this wonderful country of ours whilst I was growing up and hence installing my 'curiosity' to visit places of my own.
Posted by CARL
29th October 2014ce

Johnstown Hut Site 2 (Ancient Village / Settlement / Misc. Earthwork)

This is not listed in the SMR. As I ascended south towards the summit of Broughills Hill from the barrow in Johnstown, along the boundary line between Johnstown and Kiernans Hill and in turn Broughills Hill, I spied a large, rocky outcrop. Though I was making for the summit in driving wind and rain, I couldn't resist investigating. The outcrop is made of huge earthfast granite boulders, but below it to the east is a seemingly man-made platform containing this intriguing monument.

I can't make out what it is, so I've listed it here as a hut site/habitation site, though i suspect that it may be a burial/chambered cairn, ruined and lost to history, until now. There are lots of lumps and bumps in the small, 8 metre diameter area, some of which may be a chamber, or may be the hearth of an old hut site. In the north-west quadrant there is erosion leaving packed, cairn-like stone visible. The whole mound is about half a metre tall, rising to a metre in places.

A mystery, leading me to reckon that this ridge, leading down from Broughills Hill, has not been properly surveyed.
ryaner Posted by ryaner
29th October 2014ce

Raven Tor Triple Cairn (Cairn(s))

It's taken 12years for the heather to claim back the Triple Cairn. But it's just about completed the job.
The kerbstones, the most impressive thing, to me, surrounding the cairns are completely covered and the only visible part is a small stoney area on its highest part, and this is only visible when you're right on top of the cairn.

Shame really, but the moor hasn't been managed after the Right To Roam came in, and the grouse shooting stopped at roughly the same time.
stubob Posted by stubob
28th October 2014ce
Edited 5th November 2014ce

Broughills Hill (Standing Stones)

There are two listed standing stones in this small townland, west of the summit of the hill with the same name. I believe I found both, along with two other possibles. The terrain here is difficult - swampy, pitted, harsh and treacherous – boots a necessity if you wish to retain intact ankles.

All of the stones are being swallowed up by the peat. Of the four, the tallest, conical menhir is the only one that could be said to be definitely such. Another large, bulbous, craggy example, almost a metre and a half tall, is badly leaning to the south-west, but seems to have packing stones at its peat engulfed base.

The other two are similar, slab-like examples, one listed and said to be "Possibly a marker stone between the other Broughills Hill standing stone (WI009-030----), the Johnstown barrow (WI009-029----) and the Kiernans Hill standing stone (WI009-034----)."
ryaner Posted by ryaner
28th October 2014ce

Aldringham Green (Round Barrow(s))

Visited 27.10.14

Directions:
In the village of Aldringham, on the eastern side of the B1122.

The O/S map shows a public footpath running south-east from the B1122 past the barrows.
In reality it doesn't exist. There is no access through the hedge or past the farm workings.

From the side of the road I could make out one of the barrows as a rough, scrub covered mound.

E.H. state:
Two bowl barrows situated near the edge of a south-west facing slope overlooking the Hundred River. The larger of the two is visible as an earthen mound c.21m in diameter and stands to a height of 1.2m. The second barrow, which lies 7.5m to the south-east of the first, is c.14m in diameter and stands to a maximum height of 0.6m. A slight hollow in the centre marks the site of an old excavation.
Posted by CARL
28th October 2014ce

Tinker's Walk (Round Barrow(s))

Visited 27.10.14

Directions:
Either side of the B1387, the approach road to the village of Walberswick.

For a dead-end road it was surprisingly busy.
However, there is room for a couple of cars to park at the entrance to a bridleway.

I couldn't see anything of the barrow to the north of the road as it is very overgrown woodland and access would be very difficult.

However, the barrow on the southern side of the road (near a rather smelly pig farm) could be seen as a rough grass covered mound.

Not one to go out of your way for.
Posted by CARL
28th October 2014ce

Church Common (Round Barrow(s))

Visited 27.10.14

Directions:
North of the village of Snape, on the southern side of the A1094.

Parking is difficult (a recurring theme so far from my travels in this part of the world) but Karen briefly pulled over so I could have a quick look over the hedge for the barrows.

All I could see was one small area of rough grass.
Was this the remains of one of the barrows?
Or have they now been ploughed out?

Unfortunately E.H. have nothing to report on the matter.
Posted by CARL
28th October 2014ce

Pole Hill (Round Barrow(s))

Visited 27.10.14

From the minor road which runs to the south there is room to pull in right next to the barrow.

The barrow is quite large (for this area anyway!). Approximately 1.5m high x 20m long.
It is covered by nine trees and surrounded by flat fields in crop.

Well worth seeking out if you happen to be in the area.
Posted by CARL
27th October 2014ce

Dunan an Aisilidh (Stone Fort / Dun)

Visited: September 1, 2014

Somewhat more remote than most duns, Dunan an Aisilidh is nevertheless easy of access. Situated right at the northern tip of the Braes peninsula, a few kilometres south of Portree on Skye, you can make your way there by a pleasant walk of about 2 kilometres from the community of The Braes, following the coastline round Balmeanach Bay, then walking above cliffs northwards (past a natural arch and a sea stack) as you make your way up the eastern coast of the peninsula.

As you near your goal, the cliffs decrease almost to sea level before one final rise to the 15 metre high crag bearing Dunan an Aisilidh. Carnmore lists this galleried dun as a possible semibroch, but there is little more to see now than some foundation walling and a pile of fallen masonry on its western flank.

Nevertheless, with Ben Tianavaig to ite North and the Black Cuillin to the south, it is a great outlook point on some magnificent scenery.

This map indicates the general direction of your route.

LesHamilton Posted by LesHamilton
26th October 2014ce

Holywell, Circle, Barrow and Linear Earthworks (Barrow / Cairn Cemetery)

This is a very interesting site, but not easily seen as such from the roadside, it's a barrow within an oval earthen enclosure (called a henge elsewhere, but the ditch is external) with linear earthworks running out of each side. Best seen from the air, especially in image 2 here........ http://map.coflein.gov.uk/index.php?action=do_advanced&extenttype=BOX&minx=315122&miny=375241&maxy=375284&maxx=315214 .......
I was fully aware of this site, it's on the list of places to go, but, I didn't know that when I was there or I would have stayed longer and tried harder to see it.
A strange and complicated place.
postman Posted by postman
25th October 2014ce

Penygraig (Barrow / Cairn Cemetery)

Do not come here if your looking to see something, Coflein say of this the southern of the three barrows........A probable barrow, one of three in the vicinity, c.20m in diameter and 0.5m high....yeah right.
Two out of three barrows are only half a meter high and the third is totally destroyed, even at half a meter they merge seamlessly with the surrounding terrain.
So, if your barrow watching in this part of North Wales don't pick one at random from the map, have a look on Coflein first, like what I didn't.
postman Posted by postman
25th October 2014ce

Grimspound & Hookney Tor

On a walking break for a few days in Devon last week. Spent a day (it was never going to be long enough) travelling to and walking on Dartmoor. First walk was to Wistman's Wood - a place I have long wanted to visit. Ancient twisted oaks dripping with silvery lichen and huge rocks covered in mosses, the place had another-worldly feel.
Later, a quick roadside stop to look at Soussons Common Cairn Circle and then on to Grimspound Bronze Age settlement.
Grimspound is one of the best known prehistoric settlements on Dartmoor, probably dating from the Late Bronze Age, with the remains of 24 houses/hut circles enclosed within a stone wall. A very impressive place to visit as positioned on the steep side of some spectacular moor land. A peaty fast flowing stream runs down past one side of the circular wall.
Text taken from 'Ancient Dartmoor' by Paul White says "The most famous of the pound settlements is Grimspound, which is untypical in the immense thickness of its outer walls. It has been calculated that these would have taken 35 man-years to make. Since the site is badly positioned for defence (and the Bronze Age was a remarkably peaceful period) it is hard to see why such a massive structure was needed." Paul White goes on to say it would be tempting to assume these people were pastoralists, keeping their sheep and cattle on the moor and bringing them in for protection from raiders such as wolves or 'the wild lads from the next valley', however, he adds there is no evidence to support these assumptions.
tjj Posted by tjj
20th October 2014ce

Ridge Hill (Round Barrow(s))

Visited 13.10.14

Directions:
Next to a minor road off the A352 to the north of Cerne Abbas / west of Buckland Newton.

There is very little to see. I could only spot one of the barrows. Approximately 0.3m high x 5m across.

Don't bother.

E.H. state:
The monument includes two bowl barrows aligned broadly NNW-SSE on the crest of Ridge Hill. Both barrows have been reduced in size by past ploughing. The northern barrow has a mound, now elongated but formerly 8m in diameter, and 0.5m high. The second barrow, approximately 30m to the south west, is now visible only as a slight rise in the ground surface but was formerly 13m in diameter and 0.6m high. Both mounds are surrounded by quarry ditches from which material to construct them was derived. These have become infilled over the years and now survive as buried features approximately 2m wide. The barrows lie within a wider area of prehistoric field system which is not included in the scheduling. All fence posts are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath these features is included.
Posted by CARL
20th October 2014ce

Valley of Stones Barrow (Round Barrow(s))

Visited 14.10.14

You can pull in at the wooden gate and sign pointing the way to the Valley of Stones.
I didn’t have time to visit the valley but immediately to the right of the gate is an area covered by the dreaded gorse. Amidst the gorse, next to the road, is a gorse covered mound.
It is approximately 1 metre high x 10 metres across. You can’t get too close due to the gorse.

E.H. has nothing to report.
Posted by CARL
20th October 2014ce

Grey Mare Barrows (Round Barrow(s))

Visited 14.10.13

Parking at the start of the private road to Gorwell Farm (room for one car) the barrows are easy to see as low grass mounds in the field the other side of the fence. There is a metal field gate which gives access to the field. This was my starting point for visiting the nearby Grey Mare and her Colts.

E.H. state:
Two bowl barrows 283m SSE of the Grey Mare and her Colts
Two bowl barrows situated on the upper western-facing slopes of a prominent hill, overlooking a dry valley and with distant views to the sea. The barrows survive as circular mounds surrounded by buried quarry ditches, from which the construction material was derived. The western mound measures 29m in diameter and 1.3m high; the eastern mound is 24m in diameter and 1m high.
Posted by CARL
20th October 2014ce

Kingston Russell (Stone Circle)

Failed visit 14.10.14

I am gutted about failing to find the stone circle.

We managed to arrange a short two-day break away (without the children!) on the south coast.

This was due to be the first ‘major’ site on my itinerary for the two days but due to the awful weather I rescheduled the plans which basically meant we did things in reverse order. So, instead of being the first site to visit it became the last – which (at least partly) was the reason for my failure.

It was not clear from the map which was the best route to the circle. From the south or from the north?
It looked about the same distance walk so I opted for the approach from the south as I would be able to take in the Grey Mare and her Colts on the way. (Despite being an E.H. site they give no information on the best way to approach the circle – despite an e-mail to them requesting advice). Unfortunately I had not read dickie's directions beforehand – mistake.

After visiting the Grey Mare I continued north through the fields (but not as I should have done along the bridleway). After crossing the first field I was met by a large field in crop. I was able to walk part-way into the field along a track but there was no way through it without causing damage – something I wasn’t prepared to do. I re-traced my steps but could find no other way past the field of crop.

Due to time constraints I discounted the longer walk past Gorwell Farm as I needed a more direct route.
I decided to return to the car and attempt an approach from the north. We weaved our way through the maze of unsignposted lanes and followed the road as far as we could. Unfortunately about 1 mile before where the O/S map shows the road ends and the footpath starts the road turns into a very rough track – suitable only for 4x4s.
I simply didn’t have time for this extra walk as we had to get back for the children. I was very, very disappointed.

The next time I visit I will take the rout via Gorwell Farm. Although it may be longer than dickie's directions it involves the shortest distance ‘off road’. Given my poor orientation skills this probably gives me the best chance of success!

I would be happy to hear the advice of others who have visited as to which is the best route to take.

I guess you win some, you lose some………………… Still gutted though!
Posted by CARL
20th October 2014ce

The Grey Mare & Her Colts (Long Barrow)

Visited 14.10.14

Directions:
Park at the start of the private road to Gorwell farm (room for one car).
Directly in front of you is a bridleway. Walk along the bridleway (high hedge on your left) until you reach a wooden stile. Go over the stile, turn right and walk a short distance until you reach a metal gate on your left. **This is NOT the gate you see immediately after going over the stile**. You will see the long barrow from the gate.

As has previously been reported, despite its ruined state, there is a lot to recommend a visit.
The standing / fallen facing stones are very large and there are sufficient remains of the earthen part of the long barrow to easily make the shape out. Far away in the distance the coastline and sea can be seen. On my visit the field was full of sheep that seemed quite at home nestled down amongst the stones – until I disturbed them!

Despite the damage caused to it the long barrow has somehow retained a sense of ‘atmosphere’.
It only takes about 5 minutes to walk to the Grey Mare and it is well worth the minimum effort required.
Posted by CARL
20th October 2014ce

Carreg Cennen (Sacred Well)

Carreg Cennen. An evocative name to the (somewhat protruding) ears of an Englishman first brought here by his father during 1983 (Cestyll '83, as I recall), a boy with a head filled with incoherent images of 'something' that perhaps existed before what was quickly becoming, to him, the complete bollocks of organised religion... the hymns we were forced to sing at school.... but took subconscious delight in defying. Even then. Something burning within, something subsumed deep in the folk memory. Ancient Britains. Not desert people. Christianity irrelevant.

I arrive today, in pouring rain, with more than an eye on re-visiting the not so distant (incredibly undervalued) hill fort of Garn Goch. Do so if you can. Parking in the rather busy car park, I wonder if it is actually a good idea to revisit times past? Would the somewhat cynical mind of the 45 year old render the magical experience of the initiate superfluous? In short, er, no. I purchase my ticket and ascend the track to the fortress perched upon its eyrie. The medieval fortifications are easily retrieved from my psyche... their imprint seared upon my impressionable mind years ago. Not so the very attractive lady - with idiosyncratic canine companion and perfect figure - engaged with capturing the vibe for posterity upon her DSLR. Pure class. Superlatives come as standard at Carreg Cennen, the mind thrown into overdrive, with carnal base thoughts vying for attention with those upon an altogether higher plane. Unfortunately the words do not flow from my brain to the tongue in any coherent manner.... as usual.

So... a rather steep flight of steps descend to a dark passage - lit by loop holes - to access the entrance to (one of) the caves which permeate this carboniferous limestone crag. This is something special, however. Really special indeed. The rough-hewn steps vanish into a more-or-less unfathomable gloom below.... so careful now. The eyes adjust a little, revealing a medieval outer wall, fashioned into 'pigeon holes' to accommodate, well, pigeons - funnily enough - to supplement the castle food supply. Within, a naked gash within the cliff face represents the threshold beyond which a torch will be required. To be fair I've been here before, feeling my way to the cave's terminus in utter darkness during the early 90's. Forgot a torch. And humans so need to appreciate where they are going, do they not? Ok, appreciate, if not necessarily understand.

I've borrowed the Mam C's torch today..... and advance down the narrow, undulating passage toward the very underworld itself. The thought that pre-Ice Age people were laid to rest within here, a proto-chambered tomb if ever there was one, blows my mind, the floor of the cave suddenly descending to afflict a stumble, walls as luminescent as marble, as apparently hydrated as a cascade, yet ironically dry to the touch. I reach the end point of the cave, my heart pounding as if in homage to New Order's iconic Oberheim DMX drum machine, my breath clouding my vision as upon a sub-zero December morning, my camera lens overwhelmed with vapour. Here, upon the right hand flank, has been fashioned a small pool of water, inexorably replenished from water dripping from the roof. I extinguish the torch and eat my lunch in utter darkness, struggling to comprehend how such sensual deprivation can have such an opposite effect?

The flanks of the cave are engraved with graffiti, some inspiringly celebrating love, some utter moronic bollocks. The human experience, then? The instinctive base line and the sublime. I refrain from recording my passage, of course, leaving behind merely a trace of my exhaled carbon dioxide and spilled coffee. Well, distant ancestors were laid to rest here, it has to be said. I ponder for a while and suppose I can see the reason why. Yeah, this place is not really that different from the Pavilland Cave visited earlier this year. If I'm anything to go by, the perceptive visitor's brain appears able to retrieve a fragment of what went before.... sorry, but I can't articulate any more than that. So come and experience for yourself.
GLADMAN Posted by GLADMAN
17th October 2014ce
Edited 18th December 2014ce

Rathurles (Standing Stones)

To the north of the tri-vallette ring-fort are two large recumbent blocks of stone.
In the older OS letters they are described as the remains of a druids altar however in the latest description they are described as "gateways" and "Listed in the SMR (1992) and RMP (1998) as piers. These gatepiers are located in the field NE of Rathurles ringfort (TN021-012001). They consist of two large recumbent limestone blocks fomerly used as gatepiers to mark the entrance to the ringfort and are likely to be of nineteenth-century date."
On the old 6" OS maps of the 1840s they are described as "remarkable stones".

To me I'm not sure how they could be described as gate-posts to a ring-fort and I've been trying to identify where this newer description came from. There those appear to have been some work done to the stones and at what date this was completed I don't know. However where these large stones are now located is not near any existing or old field entrance. Why someone would move them to this position I don't know. It seems to me more likely that they are in their original position?

The ring-fort itself is known as "the fair of munster or Ormond" (Ormond comes from the irish for north munster) or an old aonach site. Seemingly it is the reason why the town of Nenagh is located where it is. The thinking being that when the Norman settlers arrived they moved it to a new location.
bawn79 Posted by bawn79
17th October 2014ce
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