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Not just a cist, but a cist in the centre of a cairn circle (or very denuded kerbed cairn). And exciting finds were found there.
Eight stones, up to 0.5m high, define a kerb circle, within which is a cist, 1.6m by 0.6m.
Excavation, in 1830, which recovered burnt bone and 'bronze buttons' is thought to have removed the body of the cairn.
This cairn is not marked on O/S 1:25000 mapping which seems odd as it's on a path close to the Beacons Way path. It is however in an area rich with Bronze Age monuments, several of which (Upper Neuadd cairns, Cribyn) are intervisible with the cairn.
A stone cairn on the steep west-facing slope of Tor Glas. It is roughly 6m in diameter and 0.50m high situated on a slight terrace. On the northwest side the cairn had a possible edge or kerb to it but grass covering the edges obscured the detail.
Two closely-spaced earthworks alongside The Ridgeway, Norchard Beacon.
Castle Park (west) (SN07030030)
The N and E sides of a possible subrectangular hillslope enclosure, c.40m in extent. A terraced track has been associated with the site.Castle Park (east) (SN0762000204)
1. Earthworks of two relict field boundaries, occurring in single current field, c.160m across: the S earthwork, a curvilinear SW-ESE bank/scarp set above ground falling to the N, corresponds to a boundary depicted on OS County series (1890); the more N feature appears to be an E-W scarp, or lynchet, not incompatible with irregularities n current field boundary.
2. Aerial photography on 11th Jan 2006 confirms that earthworks are remnants of a denuded hillfort or defended enclosure, with an inner, oval defended enclosure crossed by an east-west boundary and partly fossilised on its south-west side by a field boundary, and a wider-spreading arc of bank to the north, formerly describing an outer defended enclosure or annex. The remains are consistent with the place-name.
Group of four round barrows, near a couple of nearby defended enclosures, on the top of an west-east ridge alongside a road/track known as The Ridgeway. Somewhat crude excavation techniques were used...
Coflein descriptions of the barrow group (west-east):
Bier Hill IV (SN06980009)
One of four barrows upon Bier hill excavated 1851-1859 (see Nprn305116, 305117, 305119), 35m in diameter and 1.4m high, in which were found human bone, ashes and sherds of a cinerary urn.Bier Hill III (SN07020010)
measures 26m in diameter and 1.6m high. In 1851 gunpowder was used to open a cist within the barrow, smashing a skeleton lying beneath the capstone.Bier Hill II (SN07100009)
The smallest of four barrows upon Bier hill (see Nprn305115), 18m in diameter and 0.4m high, a 'food vessel' was recovered from the mound in 1851.Bier Hill I (SN07280007)
27m in diameter and 1.6m high, BA pottery and flint chips were recovered in the 1850's. There are no indications that the mound has been used as a beacon.
Coflein information about the drowned forest and assorted footprints:
An extensive peat deposit which was uncovered by exceptionally high tides during the winter of 2009-10. In the surface of the deposit a number of footprints were visible, both of human and animal form. Many of the footprints were quite confused, suggesting that people were milling around on the edge of what would have been a wetland area bordering a lake or lagoon in the Bronze Age. Some distinct sets of tracks of human and animal origin were also determined. In particular, foot prints appearing to be of red deer were clearly recorded.
On 24th June 2010 the RCAHMW laser scanned the surface of the deposit in conjunction with Deri Jones and Associates, allowing a complete and objective recording of the extent of the deposit and footprints to be made.
Radiocarbon 14 dates suggest 6150+/-120BP, 5300+/-100BP (OXA-1378, OXA-1412), calibrated to 5400-4750 BC, 4350-3940BC. Artefacts recovered from the northen end of the beach include 36 flint tools from a level of '1ft deep in red clay drift' and the Lydstep pig. Contemporary sketches of the find from Tenby Museum show that a stone arrow head was found in the pig's shoulder. The surface of one part of the peat exposure was laser scanned by RCAHMW staff in 2011 working with staff and volunteers from Dyfed Archaeological Trust.
Formerly an extensive settlement of at least 8 roundhouses, only three now remain. Finds indicate a continuation of occupation into the Roman period.
The name appears to translate as something like "Bridge of the blue causeway"(?)
Further details of the site at Coflein.
A possible cairn lies in a very steep-sided valley. Canmore:
A cairn or a possible building (NOSAS site survey number 995) appears as a stone spread bounded by a straight edge along one side. A dyke previously recorded at this approximate location was not found.Another nearby feature previously thought to be a burial cairn is now thought to be natural:
(NH 25689 53568) A natural feature previously thought to be a burial cairn forms a prominent landmark on the otherwise flat valley floor. There are two small buildings cut into its S side which are likely to be associated with the adjacent townshipA third possible cairn lies to the WNW at NH 222 553.
Cairn, cairnfield, hut circle and a nearby cist at Bruachaig.
Culaneilan cairn (NH 0375 6258)
This cairn, which is situated on a terrace at the foot of a slope, measures 7.7m in diameter by 0.6m in height. Its perimeter is defined by a kerb of boulders. Culaneilan settlement (NH 0371 6255)
On the sloping terrace to the N, there is a partly robbed hut-circle, measuring 8.5m in diameter within a stone-faced bank about 1.3m in thickness and 0.4m in height. It is robbed of stone on the E and a gap has been cut through on the W.
This hut-circle, which lies to the N of a burn on moss-covered terrace, measures 9m in diameter within a wall of boulders 1.5m in thickness. There is an entrance on the SE marked by a dip in the bank and two external boulders set about 2m apart. The hut-circle is surrounded by sinuous stony dykes and small cairns.Bruachaig cist (NH 0400 6219)
A short cist, containing a beaker was found in July 1898 at Bruchaig, Kinlochewe. The two flags covering the cist were at ground level.
Mrs. MacKenzie of Gairloch has lent the beaker to the National Museum - L.1963, 29. Other short cist burials seem to have been found in the district as Dixon records that "...an ancient burial-place was discovered some years ago at Bruchaig... where the bodies had been buried in a doubled-up position."
Mrs. MacKenzie confirmed the position of the cist at Bruchaig, which is now in ruins. Nothing is now visible at the spot nor have further burials been found.
A stone ball was found in or around this site, and appears to have been kept by Mr MacKenzie's nephew, Roderick, at his house. The ball was handed to Gairloch Heritage Museum after Roderick's death circa 1986.
A cist lying in the valley next to the River Bran. The cist was destroyed during road straightening, but added to TMA as it provides a tantalising hint that the apparent dearth of prehistoric occupation in these highland valleys is probably illusory.
Canmore has the following:
A short cist containing a beaker burial was found, late in July 1959, during road straightening through a natural morainic hillock.(W G Bannerman, County Road Surveyor) Only a piece of charcoal was found with the beaker which is in the National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland (NMAS)
Possibly a long barrow, possibly nothing more than a natural mound disturbed by chalk digging. Pastscape has the following:
The remains of an elongated E-W mound, much cut about at both ends by stone-diggers, situated about 1/4 mile west of the monument. Perhaps the remnant of a long barrow. Calne Without 1 - a doubtful long barrow almost destroyed by flint diggers. Orientation E-W?.
Old diggings have resulted in large pits surrounding and encroaching upon what appears to be an E-W mound 0.6m. high. This assumes that the slight ledge or berm between the mound and the quarry faces represents the original land surface. If it is a long barrow both ends have been destroyed. The original authority for identification is obscure, but Grinsell may be incorrect in virtually dismissing it. 1:2500 survey revised.
The Ordnance Survey 1/25000 (Explorer) shows four barrows on the western knoll of the Cherhill Down ridge, poised above steep slopes. Three are apparent on the ground.
Pastscape has the following:
Calne Without 2, 2a, 2b and 2d.
2 - SU 03836939 - a bowl barrow 27 x 1ft ('A')
2a- SU 03846933 - a bowl barrow 24 x 1ft. ('B')
2d- SU 03936924 - a bowl barrow 27 x 1ft ('C')
2b- SU 03856937 - a saucer barrow 53ft x 1ft overall ('D'). (2)
Calne Without 2a and 2d are small ditchless bowl barrows 0.6m high.
2b is a saucer barrow. The mound is 0.4m high and the bank 0.3m high.
'E' At SU 03936936 is a circular depression 1.7m deep surrounded by a bank 11.0m high. It has the appearance of a pond barrow but is not mentioned by Grinsell in V.C.H.
Calne Without 2 cannot be traced but from its position on a steep chalk scarp it would seem unlikely to have been a barrow.
The Bronze Age round barrows described as Grinsell's Calne Without 2a (`B'), 2b (`D'), and the pond barrow (`E') are visible on aerial photographs. `B' is visible as a mound and surrounding ditch with a diameter of 10m. `D' is visible as a mound possibly surrounded by a ditch, surrounded by a ring bank which appears to have an external ditch and has an overall diameter of 10m.
Round cairn on the summit of Easter Head, the northern headland of Dunnet Head, making this presumably the most northerly prehistoric site in mainland Britain. Sadly the cairn has been covered by a modern viewpoint seating area.
Canmore's successive listings tell the story:
This is a small cairn of low elevation with a diameter of approximately 16ft. A surveyor's cairn has been erected on the top.
RCAHMS 1911, visited 1910.
The much mutilated, grass-covered remains of this cairn survive to a maximum height of 1.5m and measure some 12.0m in diameter. The cairn has been flattened on top where a modern concrete building has been built. Resurveyed at 1:2500.
Visited by OS (R B), 23 May 1965.
This roughly circular cairn, 12m in diameter and about 1m high, has been badly damaged within the last two years by the superimposition of a 'scenic viewpoint'.
C E Batey 1982
There are two contrasting man-made monuments to see here, a cairn and improbably sited hut circle, as well as Nature's own efforts in the form of some serious shakeholes.
The name is a bit obscure, as "Wydden" appears to have several different meanings. The most likely for a place-name element seems to be "tree", although generally it means that in the context of particular species, e.g. onn-wydden = ash tree; ffynidd-wydden = fir tree, whereas a non-species specific tree would usually be "coed".
However, a more interesting translation is "wood spirit", as in Bodelwydden ("Home of the Wood Spirit").
Hopefully someone who speaks Welsh can confirm or otherwise!
If it is "tree", the name would be something like "Small pit of the tree" (there's a non-"fach" version a little to the north, with a waterfall).
Pwll-yr-Wydden Fach cairn (SN82921508)
A cairn is located between two shakeholes.Pwll-yr-Wydden Fach hut circle (SN82891510)
It measures 10m in diameter and 0.5m high and is composed of loose small grade stones with some larger stones. The edge of the mound is grassed over. On the north-west lies a large slab and at the centre is a hollow 1.5m across and 0.3m deep.
The hut circle is located at the bottom of a shake hole. Internally it measures 3.2m north to south by 2.8m and is bounded by a low stone wall of roughly coursed slabs and blocks. The wall measures 0.6m thick and survives to a height of 0.6m above the rubble strewn interior. On the west is a well marked entrance flanked on each side by boulders; they measure 1.1m and 1.3m long respectively and are separated by a distance of 0.45m.
Two cairns at the southern end of the Cefn Mawr ridge, to the east of the Gwys Fach and (in the case of the northern cairn) intervisible with Llorfa menhir. Coflein descriptions:
Cwm Fforch-wen (SN78861400)
Situated on the crest of a ridge lies a disturbed cairn. It consists of a stony mound measuring 7m (NE-SW) by 6m and 0.3m high. Towards its SW edge lies a slab, embedded in the cairn, which measures 1.6m long, 0.2m thick and with a height of 0.3m above the mound. Aligned NW-SE, the slab is perhaps the remains of a cist.Llorfa round cairn (SN78731379)
A small cairn lies on roughly level ground on the broad crest of a ridge, a short distance from field walls and sheep folds. The turf covered mound, topped with loose stones, measures 4m in diameter and about 0.4m high. On the immediate N there is a broad band of stones which appears to demarcate the relatively clear ground to the S from the more stony ground to the N.
Description of the site, on Roborough Down next to the Plymouth - Yelverton road (A386):
Early Iron Age Camp.
The camp is formed of circular earthworks; there is no evidence of any stone being used. The outer bank is 100 yards in diameter, the smaller one, or Keep, 100 feet across. To the south the inner bank is still further protected by a sickle-shaped breastwork or agger. The camp is approached by two embanked ways, one from the main road, the other going north east from the camp, crossing both the Buckland road and the main Plymouth-Tavistock road, and can be traced to the south-eastern end of the golf links. The inner bank has been heavily planted with hawthorns and may well have been used as a pound for stray animals. There is also a small secondary earthwork, 50 feet in diameter, across the road opposite the banked trench, and a long embankment. The camp was almost certainly used as a beacon; on Spry's 16th century map of Plymouth Leat it is marked as Rowben Beacon.
The air photograph shows Saunders' map to be conventionalised. The inner enclosure, "The Keep", is not concentric with the outer rampart but lies to the east of its centre : within it appears to be two small circular enclosures with a rectangular enclosure against their north west sides. The "breastwork" appears to be earlier than the outer rampart and to have extended, formerly, to the west where there is a trace of a low bank. The "embanked trench" does not appear to extend beyond the road at SX 50676421.
A NNW-SSE linear group of seven cairns crossing a hillside south of the Afon Ceiriog. Coflein descriptions (NNW-SSE):
Graig Wea I (SJ23893757)
Graig Wea II (SJ23883745)
A rather irregular, sub-oval cairn, c.15.5m NW-SE by 14m, and 0.9m high, much disturbed.
A round cairn, c.8.2m in diameter and 0.8m high, slightly disturbed.Graig Wea III (SJ24053710)
One of a pair of round cairns found in close proximity (see also Graig Wea IV), c.20m in diameter, very much disturbed.Graig Wea IV (SJ24093711)
One of a pair of round cairns found in close proximity, c.13m in diameter and 0.6m high, disturbed.New Buildings I (SJ24323666)
One of a linear group of three cairns, c.11m in diameter and 0.7m high, ruined.New Buildings II (SJ24353660)
One of a linear group of three cairns, c.10m in diameter and 0.4m high.New Buildings III (SJ24403659)
One of a linear group of three cairns , c.12m in diameter and 1.3m high, disturbed.
Two barrows excavated in the 19th century, positioned on the summit of a hill overlooking the Gwendraeth estuary.
Two barrows, at SN40530897 (Dat Prn1394) and SN40750900 (Dat Prn1393), each c.75' in diameter and ploughed down to around 0.5m high.
Opened 1850 revealing possible mass cremation in the eastern barrow and an inhumation and separate cist in the western. Beaker fragments and a stone 'axe hammer' are reported from the barrows as a group.
This site has been recently (May 2013) cleared by the fine people of Cornish Ancient Sites Protection Network (CASPN), leaving it easier to access and see than it has been for many years.
The site is listed in Craig Weatherhill's excellent "Belerion" (Alison Hodge 1981), with a plan. There is a main group of 8 buildings, together with a triangular enclosure that may have been a pound. A Bronze Age date has been ascribed to the simple circular houses, which raises the possibility that this was the home of the people who erected the wonderful Nine Maidens of Boskednan stone circle and the Men an Tol, both of which are on the moors nearby.
The Pastscape record for the site mentions the following feature inside the settlement:
One item which appears to be associated with this settlement is a natural boulder about 0.9m sqare and 0.5m above ground, with a circular depression 0.15m in diameter and depth, cut into the top. It looks very much like a mortar and is adjacent to the NE side of the hut circle at SW 42813443.
The barrow was excavated by William Copeland Borlase (great-great grandson of William Borlase):
Six miles west of Penzance on the brow of a hill on the right-hand side of the road leading to the Land's End, was an undisturbed cairn 38' in diameter, mounted on a pile of natural rocks, and surrounded by a ring of 16 large granite blocks set on edge.Under a large flat stone a kistvaen was revealed. 1'4" in breadth and 18" deep constructed of eight stones in two layers of four each. These side stones were purposely fitted closely round an urn, mouth downwards which was filled with bones and two chipped flints, two more of which were found outside the urn but within the kist.
On 21st Aug. 1868 the author proceeded with some miners to the spot, and caused an oblong trench to be sunk across the centre of the mound. About 18 inches from the surface was a pile of rocks, (the natural formation of the crest of the hill,) as will be seen on the accompanying plan.
The vessel, which had no bottom, was brownish and not well baked and was ornamented with the usual chevron pattern, placed horizontally. It had four pierced bosses or handles. The bones, probably of a woman were not so completely calcined as is usually the case.W.C. Borlase - Naenia Cornubiae (1872)
The sloping rock in the centre of the barrow was surrounded on all sides with ashes and charred wood; and beneath it, when raised, was nearly a cartload of ashes, as white and fresh as if a fire had scarcely been extinguished from them.
The plan can be seen here.
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"The fleeting hour of life of those who love the hills is quickly spent, but the hills are eternal. Always there will be the lonely ridge, the dancing beck, the silent forest; always there will be the exhilaration of the summits. These are for the seeking, and those who seek and find while there is still time will be blessed both in mind and body." Alfred Wainwright